MS (Obstetrics & Gynaecology)

Senior Consultant HEC PARAS HOSPITAL, Ranchi

Ex. Senior Resident Safdarjung Hospital, Delhi

Laparoscopy & InfertilitySpecialist

Menopause: A comprehensive Information: Part 1

Menopause: A comprehensive Information: Part 1

Written by :
Dr. Anshu Agarwal
MS (Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Fellowship in Laparoscopic Gyane Surgery.
Senior Consultant HEC Paras Hospital, Ranchi.

I will be discussing Menopause in two parts ,first part will focus on the understanding of menopause, its symptoms and its complications. The second part will elaborately describe the treatment and home remedies to pave your way smoothly through this phase of life.


Menopause is the natural cessation, or stopping, of a woman’s menstrual cycle, and marks the end of fertility.
Menopause occurs when a woman hasn’t menstruated in 12 consecutive months and can no longer become pregnant naturally. It usually begins between the ages of 45 and 55, but can develop before or after this age range.
Menopause can cause uncomfortable symptoms, such as hot flashes and weight gain. For most women, medical treatment isn’t needed for menopause.

Knowledge and mental preparation is the first step to cross this phase of life with confidence and without fear.

When does menopause begin and how long does it last ?

Most women first begin developing menopause symptoms about three to four years before their last period. Symptoms often continue until about four years after a woman’s last period.
A small number of women experience menopausal symptoms even for a decade.
The average age for menopause is 50 to 52 years
There are many factors that help determine when you’ll begin menopause, including genetics and ovary health.

Perimenopause occurs before menopause. Perimenopause is a time when your hormones begin to change in preparation for menopause.
It can last anywhere from a few months to several years. Many women begin perimenopause some point after their mid-40s. Other women skip perimenopause and enter menopause suddenly.
About 1 percent of women begin menopause before the age of 40, which is called premature menopause or primary ovarian insufficiency.
About 5 percent of women undergo menopause between the ages of 40 and 45. This is referred to as early menopause.

Why does menopause occur ?

Menopause is a natural process that occurs as the ovaries age and produce less reproductive hormones.

The body begins to undergo several changes in response to lower levels of:
  • estrogen
  • Progesterone
  • Testosterone
  • luteinizing hormone (LH)

One of the most notable changes is the loss of active ovarian follicles. Ovarian follicles are the structures that produce and release eggs from the ovary wall, allowing menstruation and fertility.

What are the symptoms of menopause?

Every woman’s menopause experience is unique. Symptoms are usually more severe when menopause occurs suddenly or over a shorter period of time.
Diseases like cancer or hysterectomy, or certain lifestyle choices, like smoking, tend to increase the severity and duration of symptoms.
Aside from menstruation changes, the symptoms of perimenopause, menopause, and postmenopause are generally the same. The most common early signs of perimenopause are

  • Less frequent menstruation
  • Heavier or lighter periods than you normally experience
  • Hot flashes, night sweats, and flushing

An estimated 75 percent of women experience hot flashes with menopause.

Other common symptoms of menopause are:

  1. Insomnia
  2. Vaginal dryness
  3. Weight gain
  4. Depression
  5. Anxiety
  6. Difficulty concentrating
  7. Memory problems
  8. Reduced libido, or sex driveReduced libido, or sex drive
  9. Dry skin
  10. Increased urination
  11. Sore or tender breasts
  12. Headaches
  13. Racing heart
  14. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  15. Reduced muscle mass
  16. Painful or stiff joints
  17. Reduced bone mass
  18. Less full breasts
  19. Hair thinning or loss
  20. Increased hair growth on other areas of the body, such as the face, neck, chest, and upper back

Common complications of menopause include:

  • Vulvovaginal atrophy
  • Dyspareunia, or painful intercourse
  • Slower metabolic function
  • Osteoporosis, or weaker bones with reduced mass and strength
  • Dyspareunia, or painful intercourse
  • Cataracts
  • Periodontal disease
  • Urinary incontinence

In second part of my article on menopause i will try to explain you all about the treatment and home remedies which are extremely effective to make your menopausal road smooth